In Africa, rapid testing for recent HIV infection (RTRI) is being scaled up; however, use of the recent infection testing algorithm (RITA), which uses viral load (VL) to confirm RTRI-recent infections, is not a widespread practice. We present results of recently acquired HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender women, and genderqueer (TGW/GQ) individuals with newly diagnosed HIV infection in Zimbabwe as per the national approach (RTRI) and applying a RITA. In 2019, 1,538 MSM and TGW/GQ in Harare and Bulawayo, Zimbabwe were recruited to participate in a biobehavioral survey using respondent-driven sampling. Consenting participants received HIV testing and all HIV-positive specimens were tested with the RTRI Asanté HIV-1 Rapid Recency Assay, and for VL and CD4 count. RTRI-recent participants with unsuppressed VL (≥1,000 copies/mL) were classified as RITA-recent. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize results among RTRI-recent and RITA-recent participants. Among those tested for HIV (1,511/1,538), 22.5% (340/1,511) tested positive and of those, 55.0% (187/340) self-reported an HIV-negative or unknown status. Among these, 8.6% (16/187) were classified as RTRI-recent and 91.4% (171/187) were classified as RTRI-long term. After accounting for VL, RITA-recency was 1.1% (2/187). Two of 16 (12.5%) RTRI-recent infections were RITA-recent. VL among RITA-recent cases were 9,052 copies/mL and 40,694 copies/mL and both had CD4 counts <500. Data highlight misclassification of recent infections among MSM and TGW/GQ with newly diagnosed HIV infection using RTRI. With the incorporation of VL, >85% of RTRI-recent cases were reclassified as RITA-long term. True characterization of recent infections may not be possible without VL testing, which remains challenging in resource-limited settings.