Adamson B, El-Sadr W, Dimitrov D, Gamble T, Beauchamp G, Carlson JJ, Garrison L Jr, Donnell D.
Value Health. 2019 Feb;22(2):194-202. doi: 10.1016/j.jval.2018.09.001. Epub 2018 Nov 2.
To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of financial incentives for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral suppression compared to standard of care.
Mathematical model of 2-year intervention offering financial incentives ($70 quarterly) for viral suppression (<400 copies/ml3) based on the HPTN 065 clinical trial with HIV patients in the Bronx, NY and Washington, D.C.
A disease progression model with HIV transmission risk equations was developed following guidelines from the Second Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. We used health care sector and societal perspectives, 3% discount rate, and lifetime horizon. Data sources included trial data (baseline N = 16,208 patients), CDC HIV Surveillance data, and published literature. Outcomes were costs (2017 USD), quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), HIV infections prevented, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER).
Financial incentives for viral suppression were estimated to be cost-saving from a societal perspective and cost-effective ($49,877/QALY) from a health care sector perspective. Compared to the standard of care, financial incentives gain 0.06 QALYs and lower discounted lifetime costs by $4210 per patient. The model estimates that incentivized patients transmit 9% fewer infections than the standard-of-care patients. In the sensitivity analysis, ICER 95% credible intervals ranged from cost-saving to $501,610/QALY with 72% of simulations being cost-effective using a $150,000/QALY threshold. Modeling results are limited by uncertainty in efficacy from the clinical trial.
Financial incentives, as used in HTPN 065, are estimated to improve quality and length of life, reduce HIV transmissions, and save money from a societal perspective. Financial incentives offer a promising option for enhancing the benefits of medication in the United States.