Malati CY, Golin R, O’Brien L, Sugandhi N, Srivastava M, Larson C, Phelps BR.
J Int AIDS Soc. 2019 Apr;22(4):e25267. doi: 10.1002/jia2.25267.
Despite a significant reduction in mother-to-child transmission of HIV, an estimated 180,000 children were infected with HIV in 2017, and only 52% of children under 15 years of age living with HIV (CLHIV) are on life-saving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Without effective treatment, half of CLHIV die before the age of two years and only one in five survives to five years of age.
Over the past four years, the United States Food and Drug Administration tentatively approved new formulations of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) in the form of oral pellets and oral granules. However, the slow uptake of the aforementioned formulations in the low- and middle-income countries with the highest paediatric HIV burden is largely due to three challenges: limited manufacturing capacity; current unit cost of the pellets and granules; and slow uptake of these new formulations by policy makers and health care workers.
Solutions to overcome these barriers include ensuring availability of an adequate supply of LPV/r oral pellets and oral granules, considering all programmatic and clinical factors when selecting paediatric ART formulations, and leveraging current resources to decrease paediatric HIV morbidity and mortality.