Long-acting antiretroviral products have the potential to transform human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and treatment approaches in pediatric populations. Broadly neutralizing antibodies and/or long-acting antiretroviral formulations by injection could dramatically improve provision of HIV prophylaxis and/or early treatment to newborns and infants at risk of HIV infection. Challenges in daily oral antiretroviral administration to toddlers and school age children living with HIV may be relieved by use of long-acting formulations, but the pharmacokinetics and safety of these products in children must be studied before they can enter routine clinical use. Although some initial studies of broadly neutralizing antibodies and injectable long-acting agents in infants and young children are underway, more studies of these and other long-acting products are needed. For many adolescents, compliance with daily medication administration is especially challenging. Long-acting products hold particular promise for adolescents living with HIV as well as those at high risk of HIV acquisition, and adolescents can usually be included in the drug development pipeline simultaneously with adults. Long-acting products have the potential to provide alternatives to lifelong daily oral drug administration across the pediatric age spectrum, leading to more effective prevention and treatment of HIV infection in infants, children, and adolescents.