Authors: Sabin Nsanzimana, Gallican Nshogoza Rwibasira, Samuel Sewava Malamba, Gentille Musengimana, Eugenie Kayirangwa, Sasi Jonnalagadda, Erika Fazito Rezende, Jeffrey W Eaton, Veronicah Mugisha, Eric Remera, Semakula Muhamed, Augustin Mulindabigwi, Jared Omolo, Lubbe Weisner, Carole Moore, Hetal Patel, Jessica E Justman
Objectives: The 2018-2019 Rwanda Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (RPHIA) was conducted to measure national HIV incidence and prevalence. District-level estimates were modeled to inform resources allocation.
Methods: RPHIA was a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey. Consenting adults were interviewed and tested for HIV using the national diagnostic algorithm followed by laboratory-based confirmation of HIV status and testing for viral load (VL), limiting antigen (LAg) avidity, and presence of antiretrovirals. Incidence was calculated using normalized optical density ≤ 1·5, VL ≥ 1,000 copies/mL, and undetectable antiretrovirals. Survey and programmatic data were used to model district-level HIV incidence and prevalence.
Results: Of 31,028 eligible adults, 98·7% participated in RPHIA and 934 tested HIV positive. HIV prevalence among adults in Rwanda was 3·0% (95% CI:2·7-3·3). National HIV incidence was 0·08% (95% CI:0·02-0·14) and 0·11% (95% CI:0·00-0·26) in the City of Kigali (CoK). Based on district-level modeling, HIV incidence was greatest in the 3 CoK districts (0·11% to 0·15%) and varied across other districts (0·03% to 0·10%).
Conclusions: HIV prevalence among adults in Rwanda is 3.0%; HIV incidence is low at 0.08%. District-level modeling has identified disproportionately affected urban hotspots: areas to focus resources.